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    Základy rozhlasu a televize - běžná zařízení a systémy

    Perhaps, you are from a broadcast TV media audience, then, you are listening to the radio or watching TV, when the program switch, the sound is big or small phenomenon? Perhaps, you are a staff member in the broadcast television station, then you have a large number of program management and irregular work pressure out of breath, or because of the broadcast accident and suspenseful? Or, you are a broadcasting station executive leader, so you are looking for a fast and accurate way to work because of the huge amount of program censorship work? Perhaps, you are a number of radio stations in the beginning of the elements, so whether the worry can not increase revenue and frown? There are too many troubles bothering you, do you want to let all these troubles go to zero? So don't worry, today is a simple radio/radio broadcast needs to know the safety of the broadcast and equipment.

     

    I. Guarantee of broadcast quality and efficiency


    1. Switcher -- protector of radio and television signals


    TV signal automatic backup equipment is an important guarantee for the safety of TV broadcast! Switcher has become the core equipment of broadcasting and television stations. Any broadcasting and television station has multi-channel signal transmission, so the signal should be switched in the output process. Field reverse switching ensures the stability, accuracy and reliability of the switching process. The combination of multiple switchers should be able to form a complex multi-layer signal switching system. The series of digital video switchers can be controlled remotely by a remote panel or computer. Ensure the safety of signal broadcast.


    With the development of broadcasting and television technology, it is no longer possible to realize the signal backup only by detecting the synchronous signal, which often leads to the malignant problem of signal interruption. At present stage is usually used in audio automatic emergency backup/switcher, in order to completely solve this kind of disease, automatically detect a variety of video parameters, fast real-time task, so as to achieve in the case of any failure or (even in the case of no image is still synchronous signal), still can automatically cut out the backup signal accurately, ensure the electrical signals for transmission. Main and standby automatic switch, automatic recovery. When the main signal failure, automatic output backup signal. When the main signal is restored to normal, the output main signal will be automatically restored. Other channels can also be used as manual backup signals. Automatic and manual controls are parallel and efficient. Automatic sound and light alarm in case of failure. If the main signal fails, the alarm light flashes and the buzzer beeps for alarm. Alarm lights flash to troubleshoot; Sound alarm to troubleshooting or press the key to cancel. Automatic backup switching time and detection parameters can be manual section. Real realization of the broadcast signal security, stability!


    2. A/D, D/A converter -- high quality signal transmission


    We know that there are two types of radio and television signal transmission: analog and digital.
    Simulation of actual, direct and the nature of the actual image corresponding to the continuous change of the electrical signal is analog signal. Television transmitted in this way is analog television. Digital TV is a TV system or TV equipment that uses discrete digital to represent and process the TV signal in the process of generation, transmission, transmission and reception.


    In real life, everywhere is analog, such as analog phone, analog photos, analog TV... Analog TV has many defects that are difficult to overcome, such as noise accumulation after multiple transmission or replication, linear and nonlinear distortion of signal, bright color interference, flicker between lines, creep, differential phase and differential gain distortion, etc., which lead to continuous degradation of image quality. This is one of the reasons for the broadcast quality problems you have encountered.


    However, most of these defects can be solved by converting analog signals to digital signals for processing, storage, control and transmission. Because digital TV brought by the digital characteristics are: ① good viewing effect, high definition, high sound quality; ② strong anti-jamming ability; ③ High transmission efficiency; ④ Compatible with existing analog TV; ⑤ Provide new business; And digitization is convenient for storage, query, retrieval, computer processing, multimedia applications.


    So in order to use digital processing and transmission of TV signals, the first thing to do is to digitize the analog TV signals, that is, to sample, quantify and code the TV signals. Adopt high performance codec technology to realize high quality conversion between analog and digital. At the same time, some product models on the market come with frame synchronization function, which can not only eliminate all kinds of synchronization problems in the system, but also synchronize the asynchronous foreign signals to the local system! So as to ensure the high quality of television broadcast.


    3. Audio embedder and unembedder -- solve the problem of audio and video synchronization at the same time, for you to save overhead


    With the gradual deepening of TV equipment digitization, we find that in the process of TV signal analog-to-digital conversion and transmission, the processing mode and transmission path of video signal and audio signal have different differences, resulting in different time-delay of video and audio signal, resulting in the phenomenon of image and sound asynchronization.In order to achieve the harmony and unity of image and sound, we use digital audio embedded into digital video SDI technology, and save the cost caused by separate transmission of video and audio.


    4. Audio automatic gain controller -- expert in volume equalization


    In the broadcast of radio and television stations, it is often encountered that the audio signal size of different programs is different. In the broadcast process, the phenomenon of large and small sound will appear, which seriously affects the listening effect of users. In order to ensure the quality of broadcast, audio processing is not only able to gain control of the big signal compression, the small signal of ascension means, to achieve real equilibrium level, with the development of the audio processing technology, various types of audio processing technology and products continue to increase, such as automatic gain, multiband compression, volume control and so on.


    5. Sync Signal -- Sync Commander

    Synchronous signal generator, to provide the system with standard synchronous signal source, black field, color bar, etc.


    6.GPS timing system -- standard clock positioning


    Received the standard world time issued by the global satellite automatic positioning system, and decoded to obtain the standard Beijing time. The system automatically corrects and keeps time, and provides standard time for the central machine room, computer network, automatic broadcast system, platform system, subtitle machine and other equipment. Ensure the punctual operation of equipment.


    7. Delay device -- security guard for broadcast


    The delay time can be adjusted from milliseconds to hundreds of seconds. Functions such as full deletion, 2s, -8s deletion, cough stop and so on are all to ensure the safety of broadcast, especially the safety of oral broadcast. Automatic pad music, pad music self-replacement or online recording. Guaranteed the safety and standardization of the broadcast.


    8. Label time marking machine -- let your identity more noble


    As we all know, the platform logo is the identity and image of a radio station, and it can also generate income for the TV station. The platform logo is an indispensable part of any TV station. However, in the access mode of the platform, if the signal is serially connected, the whole screen will be covered. Once the platform signal fails, the whole signal will be affected. In order to make the signal stable, the time marking machine adopts the keying pattern superposition mode to make the signal not interfere with the background signal and achieve accurate linear keying. Static and dynamic benchmarks are optional, so that the broadcast is stable and more diverse.


    9. Radio and TV recording, editing, storage, broadcasting, monitoring and management integrated network system -- all-around guarantee


    With the development of radio and television industry, the integrated network system of recording, editing, storage, broadcasting, monitoring and management, as a strategic network platform of radio and television, is always the core segment, whether it is in the digital video and audio period when the digital pace of radio and television is accelerating, or in the melt media period when IP constantly penetrates. It is a digital solution for radio and television stations, covering all aspects of daily program production and management, such as news production, post-editing, general control broadcast, news live broadcast, TV surveillance broadcast, document network processing, advertising management and so on.


    1) Recording -- the recording of a program


    2) Editing -- it refers to program editing and program bill editing. In this process, the work that can make radio and TV editing reliable, convenient and systematic includes program coding and uploading workstations, non-editing workstations, editor-in-chief workstations, editing workstations, etc. Non-linear editing and repeated editing will not affect the material effect, material can be realized any combination of editing and special effects. And get rid of the linear editing 1:1 editing restrictions, greatly improve the efficiency of the work. Some of the old version of the non-coding system is M-JPEG format, can not directly generate MPEG-2 files, it can not directly call broadcast, in addition to a large number of tape programs must be encoded into MPEG-2 lattice for broadcast.
    Program coding and uploading system, actual coding, conversion of programs, so that production and broadcast seamless connection, forming an integrated network of production and broadcast. In order to edit programs, the program schedule template and daily program schedule should be set by the chief editor room, and then the channel program schedule should be arranged in the serial editing workstation, and the program schedule editing log should be generated automatically. After that, the program list and broadcast list can be examined through the review workstation to ensure the safety of broadcast.


    3) Storage -- refers to the storage of programs.

    There are usually three storage methods of media assets: online, near line and offline. Media management system can automatically manage and store a large number of DVDs, long-term storage of a variety of media materials, not affected by temperature and humidity.


    4) Broadcast -- The program is broadcast in three ways: recording, rebroadcasting and live broadcasting.
    In some broadcast processes, cost savings or special effects need to be considered, in this case, to use some difficult to film on the spot or the reality of the non-existence of the scene. This is a virtual studio, where images taken by cameras are combined in real time with computer three-dimensional images to achieve the perfect effect. With the rapid development of virtual-reality fusion virtual performance, there are more abundant means of intervention in image keying, superposition, virtual scene, effect and so on.

     

    5) monitor, multi-channel monit/monitoring system has changed the traditional single monitoring works, blended in more new image technology, digital technology, security monitoring technology and computer technology, can be based on each channel and signal digital processing, monitoring, implementation for automatic digital TV signal monitoring, analysis, sound and light alarm, and so on. It greatly improves the security, reliability and accuracy of multi-channel TV signal transmission.


    6) Control -- the total control and scheduling system, easy to call the signal management, ensure the safety of broadcast, its core equipment is a matrix switcher.


    7) Management -- the network management workstation implements relevant information setting, authority allocation and management of relevant resources in various links such as recording, editing, storage, broadcasting and monitoring, so as to ensure the stability and security of the network version production and broadcasting system.

     

    II.the realization of high efficiency


    A large number of programs and program editing, a large number of film review work, as well as regular and irregular broadcast, live broadcast and rebroadcast methods, etc., bring high intensity work to the broadcasting station, our work can become easy and free? Can!


    1) Broadcast automatic broadcast controller, which automatically controls the switch and function of each broadcast equipment in the machine room, as well as the opening and closing of all power supply time sequence in the machine room. Completely meet the unattended needs of broadcast elevators at all levels.


    2) The teleprompter displays the content of the text, and the video camera is used to obtain the text. The announcer can gently push the text to turn the page. Can realize double double control or single single control. Announcer does not need to hold manuscripts, recitation or lower the head to read manuscripts, reducing the workload of the announcer.


    3) Advertising management workstation, the computer information management of the broadcasting and TV station advertising, according to the contract arrangement of advertising position, time, times to generate broadcast table to broadcast workstation, no need to make up the program list again, will not appear less broadcast, missed broadcast, multi-broadcast phenomenon. To change the traditional, backward manual management, manual bookkeeping into efficient, high reliability, high accuracy of computer management, with powerful query, retrieval, statistics, statements and printing functions. It solves the problems of low efficiency, poor accuracy, storage, query and retrieval difficulties.


    4) News manuscripts management workstation, which carries out computer information processing on radio news manuscripts and centralizes management with manuscripts as the core. Strict rights management and review process. The analysis statistics function is powerful, the chart statistics result shows at a glance. The reviewed documents can be sent to the network dubbing workstation, broadcast subtitler, network announcer teleprompter, etc., and can be called directly by them. Make the work efficiency between workstations improve.

    III. the promotion of high ratings


    High audience rating reflects the strength and attraction of a station from a certain point of view, so no matter it is a radio station or a television station, high audience rating is undoubtedly the driving force and goal of its development. But in provincial, municipal and county level television revenues and government support are also different cases can appear ratings have high low, to survive in the competition own affiliate program must have a way to revenue, with the rapid development of new media combines media, radio and television right operation has become since the media age need to grasp and section.

     

    Jak daleko (dlouho) kryt vysílač?

    Dosah přenosu závisí na mnoha faktorech. Skutečná vzdálenost je založen na anténě instalaci výšky, zisku antény, za použití prostředí, jako je stavební a jiné překážky, citlivosti přijímače, antény přijímače. Instalace antény více high a používání v zeleni, vzdálenost bude mnohem daleko.

    Příklad 5W FM vysílač používat ve městě a rodného města:

    Mám USA použití zákazník 5W FM vysílač s anténou GP ve svém rodném městě, a to vyzkoušet s autem, to pokrytí 10km (6.21mile).

    I test vysílač FM 5W s anténou GP v mém rodném městě, pokrývat asi 2km (1.24mile).

    I test vysílač FM 5W s GP anténou ve městě Guangzhou, pokrývat asi jediný 300meter (984ft).

    Níže jsou uvedeny přibližné řada různých síla FM vysílačů. (Rozsah je průměr)

    0.1W ~ 5W FM vysílač: 100M ~ 1KM

    5W ~ 15W FM Ttransmitter: 1KM ~ 3KM

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    500W ~ 1000W FM vysílač: 30KM ~ 50KM

    1KW ~ 2KW FM vysílač: 50KM ~ 100KM

    2KW ~ 5KW FM vysílač: 100KM ~ 150KM

    5KW ~ 10KW FM vysílač: 150KM ~ 200KM

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    FMUSER.ORG je systémová integrační společnost se zaměřením na RF bezdrátový přenos / studiové video audio zařízení / streaming a zpracování dat. Poskytujeme vše od poradenství a poradenství přes integraci racků až po instalaci, uvedení do provozu a školení.
     
    Nabízíme FM vysílač, analogový televizní vysílač, digitální televizní vysílač, VHF UHF vysílač, antény, koaxiální kabelové konektory, STL, na zpracování vzduchu, vysílací produkty pro studio, monitorování RF signálů, RDS kodéry, zvukové procesory a vzdálené řídicí jednotky, Produkty IPTV, Video / Audio Encoder / Decoder, navržené tak, aby splňovaly potřeby jak velkých mezinárodních vysílacích sítí, tak malých soukromých stanic.
     
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